Gilding is a process of painting on a glue called size. When the size is tacky and nearly dry, small sheets of gold leaf are placed over the area. The gold only sticks to the size, and the rest of the gold can be reclaimed. When the glue is completely dry, the area is wiped with a wet ball of cotton to remove small flecks of gold. Finally, the letter is outlined. This name was gilded with palladium leaf, which will not tarnish like silver.
Engine turning puts microscopic scratches in the gold leaf. This makes the gold catch and reflect light, no matter what direction the light is coming from. It also makes the light glint and flash as the boat rocks in the water. Gold is so soft that the scratches can be made with a piece of velvet. A pad of velvet is twisted while gently touching the gold. For large jobs I use an electric screwdriver to hold and spin the velvet.